Job Satisfaction and Employee Engagement as Mediators of the Relationship Between Talent Development and Intention to Stay in Generation Z Workers




Job Satisfaction, Employee Engagement, Intention to Stay, Talent Development, Generation Z Workers


Purpose: This study is intended to determine the relationship between talent development and intention to stay among Generation Z workers in the largest industrial center in Southeast Asia.  Intention to stay has been delineated as employees’ plan to stay in their current employment with their present employer for a relatively long period.  This study is also to test whether job satisfaction and employee engagement can mediate between talent development and intention to stay


Theoretical framework:  Retention of employees requires utilizing all tools available.  If Talent Development increases Job Satisfaction, Employee Engagement and Empowerment and these lead to increased Intention to Stay, the effects of it must be studied.


Design/methodology/approach:  The 342 samples of Generation Z employees were taken by purposive sampling technique from companies in 15 industries of Bekasi Regency including manufacturing, food industry, service industry, education, electronics, transportation, construction, IT, telecommunication, and real estate. The data was tested with Smart PLS 3.0 software.


Findings:  The result is that there is a positive and significant influence of talent development on intention to stay, and job satisfaction has a bigger mediating value than employee engagement between talent development and intention to stay.


Research, Practical & Social implications:   Future studies should have a larger Generation Z sample


Originality/value:  Research on Generation Z Talent Development is still rarely done, and Generation Z employees are especially important to companies.


Download data is not yet available.


Abraham, S. (2012). Job satisfaction as an antecedent to employee engagement. SIES Journal of Management, 8(2).

Albrecht, S. L., & Andreetta, M. (2011). The influence of empowering leadership, empowerment and engagement on affective commitment and turnover intentions in community health service workers: Test of a model. Leadership in health services.

Andrew, O. C., & Sofian, S. (2012). Individual factors and work outcomes of employee engagement. Procedia- Social and behavioral sciences, 40, 498-508.

Anitha, J. (2014). Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on

employee performance. International journal of productivity and performance management.

Antony, M. R. (2018). Paradigm shift in employee engagement–A critical analysis on

the drivers of employee engagement. International Journal of Information, Business and Management, 10(2), 32-46.

Babakus, E., Yavas, U., & Karatepe, O. M. (2017). Work engagement and turnover intentions. International

Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.

Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of management, 17(1), 99-120.

Bartel, A. P. (2004). Human resource management and organizational performance: Evidence from retail banking. ILR Review, 57(2), 181-203.

Baumark, R. (2004). The missing link: The role of employee engagement in business success,(report of a Hewitt

Associates/Michael Treacy study). Workspan, 47(11), 48-52.

Bellani, E., Ramadhani, S. R., & Tamar, M. (2017, August). Job Satisfaction as predictor of employee engagement. In 8th International Conference of Asian Association of Indigenous and Cultural Psychology (ICAAIP 2017) (pp. 15-19). Atlantis Press.

Becker, B. E., Huselid, M. A., Becker, B. E., & Huselid, M. A. (1998). High performance work systems and firm performance: A synthesis of research and managerial implications. In Research in personnel and human resource management.

Benham Jr, P. O. (1993). Developing organizational talent: the key to performance and productivity. SAM Management Journal, 58(1), 34.

Bowen, D. E., & Lawler III, E. E. (1995). Empowering service employees. MIT Sloan Management Review, 36(4), 73.

Bowman, C. (2017). The Relationship Between the Fortune 100 Best Companies to Work For and Stock Performance: Does Investing in Employees Produce Higher Returns?.

Bryngelson, J., & Cole, M. (2021). Keeping up with the Generations: Employee Engagement and Retention in Gen Z Workers. Michigan Academician, 48(1), 12-12.

Cascio, W. F. (2019). Training trends: Macro, micro, and policy issues. Human Resource Management Review, 29(2), 284-297.

Chami-Malaeb, R., & Garavan, T. (2013). Talent and leadership development practices as drivers of intention to

stay in Lebanese organisations: The mediating role of affective commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(21), 4046-4062.

Cao, L., Hirschi, A., & Deller, J. (2014). Perceived organizational support and intention to stay in host countries among self-initiated expatriates: the role of career satisfaction and networks. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(14), 2013-2032.

Fletcher, L., Alfes, K., & Robinson, D. (2018). The relationship between perceived training and development and employee retention: the mediating role of work attitudes. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 29(18), 2701-2728.

Francis, T., & Hoefel, F. (2018). True Gen’: Generation Z and its implications for companies. McKinsey &

Company, 12.

Garavan, T. N., Carbery, R., & Rock, A. (2012). Mapping talent development: definition, scope and Architecture. European journal of training and development, 36(1), 5-24.

Gaertner, K. N., & Nollen, S. D. (1989). Career experiences, perceptions of employment practices, and psychological commitment to the organization. Human relations, 42(11), 975-991.

Govaerts, N., Kyndt, E., Dochy, F., & Baert, H. (2011). Influence of learning and working climate on the retention of talented employees. Journal of workplace learning.

Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1975). Development of the job diagnostic survey. Journal of Applied psychology, 60(2), 159. .

Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hayes, T. L. (2002). Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: a meta-analysis. Journal of applied psychology, 87(2), 268.

Hiltrop, J. M. (1999). The quest for the best: human resource practices to attract and retain talent. European management journal, 17(4), 422-430.

Johari, J., Yean, T. F., Adnan, Z. U. R. I. N. A., Yahya, K. K., & Ahmad, M. N. (2012).

Promoting employee intention to stay: Do human resource management practices matter. International Journal of Economics and Management, 6(2), 396-416.

Karatepe, O. M. (2013). High-performance work practices and hotel employee performance: The mediation of work engagement. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 32, 132-140.

Kaufmann, L., & Gaeckler, J. (2015). A structured review of partial least squares in supply chain management research. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 21(4), 259-272.

Kossivi, B., Xu, M., & Kalgora, B. (2016). Study on determining factors of employee retention. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4(05), 261.

Lashley, C. (1999). Employee empowerment in services: a framework for analysis. Personnel review.

Locke, E. A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology.

Marron, M. B. (2015). New generations require changes beyond the digital. Journalism & Mass Communication

Educator, 70(2), 123-124.

Mattox II, J. R., & Jinkerson, D. L. (2005). Using survival analysis to demonstrate the effects of training on employee retention. Evaluation and Program Planning, 28(4), 423-430.

McCarthy, G., Tyrrell, M. P., & Lehane, E. (2007). Intention to’leave’or’stay’in nursing. Journal of nursing management, 15(3), 248-255.

Mehreza, A., & Bakria, A. (2019). The impact of human resource practices on job satisfaction and intention to stay in emerging economies: Model development and empirical investigation among high caliber governmental employees in Qatar.

Nanncarrow, S., Bradbury, J., Pit, S. W., & Ariss, S. (2014). Intention to stay and

intention to leave: Are they two sides of the same coin? A cross-sectional structural equation modelling study among health and social care workers. Journal of occupational health, 14-0027.

Narayanan, A. (2017). Talent Development Practices and Employees’ Intention to Stay: An Empirical Study in Knowledge Intensive Organisations. Journal of Management & Entrepreneurship (JME), 11(2), 93-104.

Park, K. A., & Johnson, K. R. (2019). Job Satisfaction, Work Engagement, and

Turnover Intention of CTE Health Science Teachers. International journal for research in vocational education and training, 6(3), 224-242. Permana, I., Tjakraatmadja, J. H., Larso, D., & Wicaksono, A. (2015). Exploring potential drivers of employee engagement, enablement, and empowerment: A quest toward developing a framework for building sustainable employee excellence for manufacturing environment in Indonesia. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(2 S1), 577.

Pichler, S., Kohli, C., & Granitz, N. (2021). DITTO for Gen Z: A framework for leveraging the uniqueness of the new generation. Business Horizons, 64(5), 599-610.

Pittino, D., Visintin, F., Lenger, T., & Sternad, D. (2016). Are high performance work practices really necessary in family SMEs? An analysis of the impact on employee retention. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 7(2), 75-89.

Popescu, D., Popa, D. M., & Cotet, B. G. (2019). Getting ready for Generation Z students-considerations on 3D printing curriculum. Propósitos y represe ntaciones, 7(2), 240-268. Presbitero, A., & Teng-Calleja, M. (2020). Employee intention to stay in an organization: Examining the role of calling and perceived supervisor support through the theoretical lens of work as calling. Journal of Career

Assessment, 28(2), 320-336.

Putra, I. G. M. O. D., Sapta, I. K. S., & Suardhika, I. N. (2021). Influence of Climate and Justice on Commitment Organizational with Job Satisfaction as Intervening Variable at Regional Revenue Agency Denpasar City. Asia Pacific Journal of Management and Education (APJME), 4(3), 103-114.

Rakhra, H. K. (2018). Study on factors influencing employee retention in companies. International journal of public sector performance management, 4(1), 57-79.

Rezaei, F., & Beyerlein, M. (2018). Talent development: A systematic literature review of empirical studies. European Journal of Training and Development.

Risdayanti, Y., & Sandroto, C. W. (2020). The Effect of Job Satisfaction and Gender on the Relationship between Employee Engagement and Intention to Leave in PT X: A Moderated Mediation Analysis. International Journal of Applied Business and International Management (IJABIM), 5(3), 13-22.

Robinson, D., Perryman, S., & Hayday, S. (2004). The drivers of employee engagement. Institute for Employment Studies.

Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of managerial psychology.

Schawbel, D. (2014). Gen Z employees: The 5 attributes you need to know. Entrepreneur.

Schroth, H. (2019). Are you ready for Gen Z in the workplace?. California Management Review, 61(3), 5-18.

Seijts, G. H., & Crim, D. (2006). What engages employees the most or, the ten C’s of employee engagement. Ivey Business Journal, 70(4), 1-5.

Shahid, A. (2018). Employee intention to stay: An environment based on trust and motivation. Journal of Management Research, 10(4), 58.

Stairs, M., Galpin, M., Page, N., & Linley, A. (2006). Retention on a knife edge: The role of employee engagement in talent management. Selection and Development Review, 22(5), 19.

Sun, Y., Wang, R., Cao, D., & Lee, R. (2021). Who are social media influencers for luxury fashion consumption of the Chinese Gen Z? Categorisation and empirical examination. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal.

Takeuchi, R., Lepak, D.P., Wang, H., Takeuchi, K., 2007. An empirical examination of the mechanisms mediating between high-performance work systems and the performance of Japanese organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology 92 (4), 1069–1083.

Tett, R. P., & Meyer, J. P. (1993). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover:

path analyses based on meta‐analytic findings. Personnel psychology, 46(2), 259-293.

Titko, J., Svirina, A., Skvarciany, V., & Shina, I. (2020). Values of young employees: Z- generation perception. Business: Theory and Practice, 21(1), 10-17.

Wang, Y. (2010). Intention to stay in Chinese foreign-invested companies: previous experiences, initial expectations and current satisfactions. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(11), 1996-2012.

Widyani, A. A. D., Saraswati, N. P. A. S., & Wijaya, I. N. B. (2019). The Mediating

Role of Turnover Intention on The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Employee Performance: Evidance From KSU Sinar Dana Mandiri Employees. International Journal of Applied Business and International Management (IJABIM), 4(3), 15-22.

Yulisman, L. (2011, June 24). Jababeka plans expansion as demand surges. The Jakarta Post.

Zhou, Q., Li, Q., & Gong, S. (2019). How Job Autonomy Promotes Employee’s Sustainable Development? A Moderated Mediation Model. Sustainability, 11(22), 6445.




How to Cite

Achmad, L. I., Noermijati, Rofiaty, & Irawanto, D. W. (2023). Job Satisfaction and Employee Engagement as Mediators of the Relationship Between Talent Development and Intention to Stay in Generation Z Workers. International Journal of Professional Business Review, 8(1), e0814.