LTE Carrier Aggregation Deployment – From Standardization to Deployment
Keywords:LTE Carrier Aggregation, Standardization, Deployment, 5G technology
Purpose: The objective of this research was to investigate LTE Carrier Aggregation commercial deployment and how soon it happened after standardization finalization. Because LTE Carrier Aggregation feature was expected to be important feature there is good reason to expect its deployment for real commercial markets.
Theoretical framework: The literature at time when standardization was ongoing predicted and speculated Carrier Aggregation feature as promising deployment selection. However there is room to investigate whether Carrier Aggregation happened shortly after standard specification work finalized.
Design/methodology/approach: Used methodology was to gather network operators’ and equipment manufacturers’ intentions for LTE Carrier Aggregation commercial deployment purposes during and after standardization finalization. Information found from public sources where commercial deployment intentions launched by companies.
Findings: The research showed that after and already before standardization finalized there were immediate intentions for LTE Carrier Aggregation deployment. Commercial trials appeared within one year and real commercial deployments appeared within two years from standardization finalization. That means soon deployments in commercial markets when considering deployment in licensed band.
Research, Practical & Social implications: For future works there could be study why not LTE Carrier Aggregation solutions in unlicensed band was not successful and whether there will be changes when going towards 5G standard related deployments.
Originality/value: This article is an academic contribution for innovation feature commercial deployment in telecommunications industry and investigation whether LTE Carrier Aggregation feature deployment happened as soon as expected.
GAmericas. (2014). LTE Carrier Aggregation. Technology Development and Deployment Worldwide. 4G Americas. October 2014.
Aittokallio, A. (2015). Ericsson demonstrates live LAA for Verizon, SK Telecom, T-Mobile US. February 10, 2015. https://telecoms.com/397492/ericsson-demonstrates-live-laa-for-verizon-sk-telecom-t-mobile-us
Alkhansa, R., Artail, H., & Gutierrez-Estevez, D. M. (2014). LTE-WiFi Carrier Aggregation for Future 5G Systems: A Feasibility Study and Research Challenges. Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon. Broadband Wireless Networking Laboratory, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, United States. 2014.
Alleven, M. (2016). Qualcomm, Deutsche Telekom complete test of LAA in Germany. Feb 3, 2016. https://www.fiercewireless.com/tech/qualcomm-deutsche-telekom-complete-test-laa-germany
Alleven, M. (2017). AT&T secure in decision to go with LAA and skip LTE-U. Jul 13,2017. https://www.fiercewireless.com/wireless/at-t-secure-decision-to-go-laa-and-skip-lte-u
Alleven, M. (2018). T-Mobile seeing 5-10x increase in speeds thanks to LAA. Feb 12, 2018. https://www.fiercewireless.com/wireless/t-mobile-seeing-5-10x-increase-speeds-thanks-to-laa
Alleven, M. (2019). Editor’s Corner: 5G is here, what’s next? Nov 27,2019. https://www.fiercewireless.com/wireless/editor-s-corner-5g-here-so-what-s-next
Alleven_2, M. (2018). AT&T more than halfway to enabling LAA in 24 markets this year. Jul 23, 2018. https://www.fiercewireless.com/wireless/at-t-more-than-half-way-to-enabling-laa-24-markets-year
Alleven_3, M. (2018). 3GPP approves work item to bring 5G NR into unlicensed spectrum. Dec 14, 2018. https://www.fiercewireless.com/wireless/3gpp-approves-work-item-to-bring-5g-nr-into-unlicensed-spectrum
Ancans, A., Peterson, E., Ancans, G., Stetjuha, M., Ipatovs, A., Stankevicius, E. (2019). Technical and economic analysis of transport telecommunication infrastructure. Department of Transport Electronics and Telematics, Riga Technical University, Azenes St. 12-316, LV-1048, Riga Latvia. Institute of Telecommunications, Riga Technical University, Azenes St. 12-201, LV-1048, Riga Latvia. Vilnus Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio al. 11, LT-10223, Vilnus, Lithuania.
Anite. (2013). Anite First to Market With Commercial LTE-A Carrier Aggregation Network Testing Solution. Oct 04, 2013. https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/anite-first-to-market-with-commercial-lte-a-carrier-aggregation-network-testing-solution-226415721.html
Brenner, D. (2018). From LTE-U/LAA to 5G Spectrum Sharing. 17 May, 2018. https://www.lightreading.com/mobile/spectrum/from-lte-u-laa-to-5g-spectrum-sharing/a/d-id/743015
Businesswire. (2016). Sprint and Nokia Kick-Off Three-Channel Carrier Aggregation LTE Plus Deployment in Kansas City. August 31, 2016. https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20160831006514/en/Sprint-Nokia-Kick-Off-Three-Channel-Carrier-Aggregation-LTE (31 Aug 2016)
Calin, D. (2015). Technologies for Future Broadband Wireless Evolution. 2015 IEEE 14th Canadian Workshop on Information Theory (CWIT). Bell Laboratories, Alcatel-Lucent, Murray Hill NJ, USA.
Cision. (2017). SK Telecom Successfully Tests LTE-Advanced Five-Band Carrier Aggregation on its Commercial Network. Feb 26, 2017. https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/sk-telecom-successfully-tests-lte-advanced-five-band-carrier-aggregation-on-its-commercial-network-300413719.html
Converge. (2013). Samsung Galaxy S 4 Supports Sprint Spark Carrier Aggregation. December 11, 2013. https://www.convergedigest.com/2013/12/samsung-galaxy-s-4-supports-sprint.html
Converge. (2014). Nokia Tests 10 Channel TDD-FDD LTE Carrier Aggregation. June 11, 2014. https://www.convergedigest.com/2014/06/nokia-tests-10-channel-tdd-fdd-lte.html
Dano, M. (2011). AWS spectrum: The capacity savior for LTE? Dec 6, 2011. https://www.fiercewireless.com/wireless/aws-spectrum-capacity-savior-for-lte
Dano, M. (2016). T-Mobile testing three-channel carrier aggregation on LTE network. Jun 7, 2016. https://www.fiercewireless.com/wireless/t-mobile-testing-three-channel-carrier-aggregation-lte-network
De Vries, H., Bekkers, V., & Tummers, L. (2015). Innovation in the public sector: A systematic review and future research agenda. Public Administration Vol. 94, No. 1, 2016 (146-166). 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
DeGrasse, M. (2015). Qualcomm, Huawei, China Mobile verify three-component carrier aggregation. May 27, 2015. https://www.rcrwireless.com/20150527/chips/3-carrier-aggregation-qualcomm-huawei-china-mobile-verify-3cc-tag4
DeGrasse_2, M. (2015). Huawei demos small cell with LAA and Wi-Fi. July 28,2015. https://www.rcrwireless.com/20150728/network-infrastructure/lte/huawei-demos-laa-small-cell-tag4
EDN. (2012). Testing carrier aggregation in LTE-Advanced network infrastructure. June 20, 2012. https://www.edn.com/testing-carrier-aggregation-in-lte-advanced-network-infrastructure
Ericsson. (2015). Ericsson and Chine Mobile Hong Kong demonstrate FDD/TDD 3CC Carrier Aggregation in Live Converged LTE Network. Aug 03, 2015. https://www.ericsson.com/en/press-releases/2/2015/8/ericsson-and-china-mobile-hong-kong-demonstrate-fdd-tdd-3cc-carrier-aggregation
Gartenberg, C. (2018). Qualcomm’s new 2 Gbps LTE modem is an important step toward 5G. Feb 14, 2018. https://www.theverge.com/circuitbreaker/2018/2/14/17009660/qualcomm-snapdragon-x24-lte-modem-2gbps-seven-carrier-aggregation-mwc
GlobeNewswire. (2020). Nokia achieves world-record 5G speed. May 19, 2020. https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2020/05/19/2035667/0/en/Nokia-achieves-world-record-5G-speeds.htm
Goldstein, P. (2011). FCC approves AT&T’s $1.93B purchase of Qualcomm’s 700 MHz spectrum. Dec 23, 2011. https://www.fiercewireless.com/wireless/fcc-approves-at-t-s-1-93b-purchase-qualcomm-s-700-mhz-spectrum
Gomba, N. (2012). T-mobile forges ahead with network upgrade, begins LTE-Advanced trials. June 18, 2012. https://www.extremetech.com/electronics/131241-t-mobile-makes-great-progress-on-network-upgrade-begins-lte-trials
Gubta, D. (2016). Riding the 4G wave: Qualcomm India to supply carrier aggregation support technology. Feb 15, 2016. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/tech/hardware/riding-the-4g-wave-qualcomm-india-to-supply-carrier-aggregation-support-technology/articleshow/50988219.cms
Hardesty, L. (2020). Qualcomm, Ericsson complete carrier aggregation tests across FDD/TDD. Aug 27, 2020. https://www.fiercewireless.com/tech/qualcomm-ericsson-complete-carrier-aggregation-tests-across-fdd-tdd
Hill, K. (2013). CTIA 2013: Test and measurement advances with carrier aggregation, RAN virtual probes. May 22, 2013. https://www.rcrwireless.com/20130522/carriers/ctia-2013-test-measurement
Hill, K. (2014). Test and Measurement: Progress on 3-component-carrier aggregation. December 12, 2014. https://www.rcrwireless.com/20141212/test-and-measurement/test-and-measurement-news-progress-three-component-carrier-aggregation-tag6
Huo, Y., Dong, X., Xu, W., & Yuen, M. (2018). Cellular and WiFi Co-design for 5G User Equipment. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Victoria, Canada. National Mobile Communications Research Laboratory, Southern University Nanjing, China. Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA. July 2018.
IEEE_Spectrum. (2019). Unlicensed Spectrum May Be Critical to 5G. Sep 05, 2019. https://spectrum.ieee.org/computing/it/unlicensed-spectrum-may-be-critical-to-5g
Jones, D. (2018). T-Mobile to Test 5G ‘Dual-Connectivity’ With Vendors. Oct 18, 2018. https://www.lightreading.com/mobile/5g/t-mobile-to-test-5g-dual-connectivity-with-vendors/d/d-id/746930
Kinney, S. (2016). Analyst: Wi-Fi carries 80% of mobile data traffic. July 7, 2016. https://www.rcrwireless.com/20160707/network-infrastructure/wi-fi/analyst-wi-fi-carriers-80-mobile-data-tag17
Kinney, S. (2017). The key role of LAA in delivering gigabit LTE. August 4, 2017. https://www.rcrwireless.com/20170804/carriers/key-role-laa-gigabit-lte-tag17-tag99
Kinney, S. (2019). What’s next for 5G in unlicensed spectrum? April 3, 2019. https://www.rcrwireless.com/20190403/5g/5g-unlicensed-spectrum
Kinney, S. (2020). 3GPP finalizes Rel. 16 5G New Radio specifications. July 6, 2020. https://www.rcrwireless.com/20200706/5g/3gpp-finalizes-rel-16-5g-new-radio-specifications
Kinney_2, S. (2019). What is dual connectivity and why is it important for 5G? August 12,2019. https://www.rcrwireless.com/20190812/chips/dual-connectivity-5g
Klug, B. (2011). Clearwire Makes its LTE Advanced Plans Official. August 3, 2011. https://www.anandtech.com/show/4574/clearwire-makes-lte-advanced-plans-official
Korea. (2014). LG Uplus Completes World’s First LTE-A 3-band Carrier Aggregation Pilot Run. June 5, 2014. http://koreabizwire.com/lg-uplus-completes-worlds-first-lte-a- 3-band-carrier-aggregation-pilot-run/11446
Liu, C-N. (2016). Trend, Technology and Architecture of Small Cell in 5G Era. Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan.
Lu, X., Sopin, E., Petrov, V., Galinina, O., Moltchanov, D., Ageev, K., Anreev, S., Koucheryavy, Y., Samouylov, K., & Dohler, M. (2019). Integrated Use of Licensed- and Unlicensed-Band mmWave Radio Technology in 5G and Beyond. King’s College London. Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. Tampere University of Technology.
Mallinson, K. (2014). LTE Advanced is bringing more than just carrier aggregation in 3GPP Release 12. Aug 18,2014. https://www.fiercewireless.com/europe/mallinson-lte-advanced-bringing-more-than-just-carrier-aggregation-3gpp-release-12
Marketing. (2018). SmarTone launches Hong Kong’s first LAA network. 31 August 2018. https://www.marketing-interactive.com/smartone-launches-hong-kongs-first-laa-network
McGlaun, S. (2014). Galaxy Note 4 with LTE Advanced Tri-Band Carrier aggregation launches. Dec 29, 2014. https://www.slashgear.com/galaxy-note-4-with-lte-advanced-tri-band-carrier-aggregation-launches-29360913
Meyer, D. (2016). Sprint 5G demo set for Philly as part of Copa América Centenario. June 14, 2016. https://www.rcrwireless.com/20160614/carriers/sprint-5g-demo-set-philly-part-copa-america-centenario-tag2
Middleton, J. (2013). SK Telecom uses Carrier Aggregation to push LTE speeds past 150 Mbps. September 05, 2013. https://telecoms.com/175892/sk-telecom-uses-carrier-aggregation-to-push-lte-speeds-past-150mbps
Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & PRISMA Group. (2009). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Ann Intern Med. 151:264-269. 21 July 2009.
Nanjundappa, A., Singh, S., & Jain, G. (2018). Enhanced Multi-RAT Support for 5G. Network Division, Samsung R&D Institute, Bangalore.
Netmanias. (2013). LTE in Korea 2013. December 04, 2013. https://www.netmanias.com/en/post/reports/6060/c-ran-fronthaul-kt-korea-lg-u-lte-lte-a-sk-telecom-samsung-wideband-lte/lte-in-korea-2013
Nokia. (2015). Nokia Networks shows industry’s first TD-LTE-Advanced 3 carrier aggregation plus 256 QAM using commercial chipset. 9 December 2015. https://www.nokia.com/about-us/news/releases/2015/12/09/nokia-networks-shows-industrys-first-td-lte-advanced-3-carrier-aggregation-plus-256-qam-using-commercial-chipset
Paolini, M. (2015). LTE unlicensed and Wi-Fi: Moving beyond coexistence. Senza Fili Consulting.
Parker, T. (2012). Qualcomm modem chipset to feature LTE Advanced, carrier aggregation. Feb 28, 2012. https://www.fiercewireless.com/tech/qualcomm-modem-chipsets-to-feature-lte-advanced-carrier-aggregation
Pohlmann, T., & Blind, K. (2016). Landscaping study on Standard Essential Patents (SEPs). IPlytics GmbH. Technical University of Berlin.
RCRWirelessNews. (2017). License Assisted Access (LAA) puts gigabit LTE in reach for 90% of global operators. March 16, 2017. https://www.rcrwireless.com/20170316/network-infrastructure/lte/license-assisted-access-laa-puts-gigabit-lte-reach-90-global-operators
RCRWirelessNews_2. (2017). Samsung and Anritsu claim 1,2 Gbps with 6 carrier aggregation. 31 Jul, 2017. https://www.rcrwireless.com/20170731/devices/samsung-and-anritsu-claim-1-2-gbps-with-6-carrier-aggregation-tag4
Ricknäs, M. (2011). How to get past the limits of 4G wireless networks. Nov 8, 2011. https://www.infoworld.com/article/2621342/how-to-get-past-the-limits-of-4g-wireless-networks.html
Salem, M., & Maaref, A. (2016). A MAC Solution for Distributed Coordination of 5G LAA Operator Networks and Fair Coexistence with WLAN in Unlicensed Spectrum. Huawei Technologies Canada Co. Ltd., Ottawa, Ontario, CANADA.
Scales, I. (2015). Mashing up LTE and WiFi with Licensed Assisted Access. Jan 6, 2015. https://www.telecomtv.com/content/mobile/mashing-up-lte-and-wifi-with-licensed-assisted-access-12059
Suryanegara, M., & Asvial, M. (2018). The patterns of innovation agendas on 5G mobile technology. Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424, Indonesia. August 2018.
Telecomlead. (2014). Nokia Networks adds RRH for 60 MHz carrier aggregation for LTE. September 3, 2014. https://www.telecomlead.com/telecom-equipment/nokia-networks-adds-rrh-for-60mhz-carrier-aggregation-for-lte-52745
Telecomlead. (2015). Nokia Networks, NTT DOCOMO to deploy 5G in 4.4 – 4.9 GHz. July 22, 2015. https://www.telecomlead.com/5g/nokia-networks-ntt-docomo-to-deploy-5g-in-4-4-4-9-ghz-59359
Telecomlead. (2016). MTS deploys FDD_TDD carrier aggregation technology. July 14, 2016. https://www.telecomlead.com/4g-lte/mts-deploys-fdd-tdd-carrier-aggregation-technology-69944
Telecomlead. (2018). Singtel achieves 1.5 Gbps speed using five-carrier aggregation. September 17, 2018. https://www.telecomlead.com/4g-lte/singtel-achieves-1-5-gbps-speed-using-five-carrier-aggregation-86411
Verizon. (2018). Verizon, Nokia and Qualcomm use LTE Advanced technology of six carrier aggregation to reach 1.45 Gbps. 27 Sep, 2018. https://www.verizon.com/about/news/verizon-nokia-and-qualcomm-use-lte-advanced-technology-six-carrier-aggregation-reach-145-gbps
Wang, H., Rosa, C., & Pedersen K. (2013). Dedicated Carrier Deployment in Heterogeneous Networks with Inter-site Carrier Aggregation. Radio Access Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark. Nokia Siemens Networks – Research, Aalborg, Denmark. 2013.
Waring, J. (2015). SK Telecom, Nokia claim 600 Mb/s data rates. 25 Feb 2015. https://www.mobileworldlive.com/asia/asia-news/skt-nokia-demo-4x4-mimo-carrier-aggregation
Waring_2, J. (2015). China Telecom accelerates LTE carrier aggregation plans. 21 Sep 2015. https://www.mobileworldlive.com/featured-content/top-three/china-telecom-accelerates-lte-carrier-aggregation-plans
Xiao, Y., Han, Z., & DaSilva, L. A. (2016). Carrier Aggregation Between Operators in Next Generation Cellular Networks: A Stable Roommate Market. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS, VOL 15, NO. 1, January 2016.
ZDNet. (2017). Huawei attains 20Gbps in 5G dual-connectivity test. 20 Oct, 2017. https://www.zdnet.com/article/huawei-attains-20gbp s-in-5g-dual-connectivity-test
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Timo Hussa
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms: the author(s) authorize(s) the publication of the text in the journal;
The author(s) ensure(s) that the contribution is original and unpublished and that it is not in the process of evaluation by another journal;
The journal is not responsible for the views, ideas and concepts presented in articles, and these are the sole responsibility of the author(s);
The publishers reserve the right to make textual adjustments and adapt texts to meet with publication standards.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal the right to first publication, with the work simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons Atribuição NãoComercial 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which allows the work to be shared with recognized authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are allowed to assume additional contracts separately, for non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work published in this journal (e.g. publish in institutional repository or as a book chapter), with recognition of authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Authors are allowed and are encouraged to publish and distribute their work online (e.g. in institutional repositories or on a personal web page) at any point before or during the editorial process, as this can generate positive effects, as well as increase the impact and citations of the published work (see the effect of Free Access) at http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html