Antecedent and Consequents of Eco-Innovation for Sustainability: Generations' Perceptions in Brazil and Portugal




Holistic helixes of innovation, Eco-innovation, Sustainable development, Brazil, Portugal


Purpose – This study aims to analyze the perception of generations (Baby boomers, X and Y) about the influence of Holistic Helixes of Innovation on Eco-innovation, as well as Eco-innovation on Environmental Practices, Cleaner Production, Social Actions, Regional Development, Smart Cities and Sustainable Development.

Theoretical framework – Holistic Helixes of Innovation, Eco-innovation, Environmental Practices, Cleaner Production, Social Actions, Regional Development, Smart Cities and Sustainable Development.

Design/methodology/approach – The method used was a descriptive, quantitative research, applied to 1032 individuals residing in Brazil and Portugal, analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling.

Findings – Holistic Helixes of Innovation strongly influence Eco-innovation. This finding can contribute to the promotion of public policies to encourage integration among stakeholders of holistic innovation helices, such as universities, government, industries, technology parks, spin-offs, incubators, startup, consulting teams, non-governmental organizations, shareholders, suppliers, and customers. The study also shows the positive influence of eco-innovation on environmental practices, cleaner production, social actions, smart cities, sustainable development, with emphasis on regional development.

Research, Practical & Social implications – The Eco-innovation precepts are key to trigger positive influences on socio-environmental aspects, smart cities and regional and sustainable development. In this sense, organizations and governments can contribute to society, with greater efficiency, allocating resources in projects that develop socio-environmental innovations.

Originality/value – It is relevant for science to know the variables that can help governments and other organizations to develop policies and actions to promote the improvement of people's quality of life from a long-term triple bottom line perspective.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Eliana Andréa Severo, Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE)

Post-Doctoral degree from the University of Caxias do Sul (UCS), Brazil, Doctor in Business Administration at the Pontificia University Católica of Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS) Brazil and University of Caxias do Sul (UCS), Brazil. Master in Administration from UCS, Brazil. Specialization in Environmental Management with Emphasis on Industry by UCS. Graduated in Business Administration from University Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS) Brazil. Graduation in Biological Sciences from the University of Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC) Brazil.

Julio Cesar Ferro De Guimarães, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE)

Post-Doctoral degree from the University of Caxias do Sul (UCS), Brazil, Doctor in Business Administration at the Pontificia University Católica of Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS) Brazil and University of Caxias do Sul (UCS), Brazil. Master in Production Engineering by the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS).


Aldieri, L., Carlucci, F., Cirà, A., Ioppolo, G., & Vinci, C. P. (2019). Is green innovation an opportunity or a threat to employment? an empirical analysis of three main industrialized areas: the USA, japan and Europe. Journal of Cleaner Production, 214, 758-766.

Akbari, M., Mehrali, M., SeyyedAmiri, N., Rezaei, N., & Pourjam, A. (2019). "Corporate social responsibility, customer loyalty and brand positioning", Social Responsibility Journal, 16(5), 671-689

Akhras, C. (2015). Millennials: entitled networking business leaders. International Journal of Computer Science and Business Informatics, 15 (1), 1694-2108.

Bagozzi, R.P., & Yi, Y. (1991). Multitrait–multimethod matrices in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 17 (4), 426-439.

Barbieri, R., & Santos, D. F. L. (2020). Sustainable business models and eco-innovation: A life cycle assessment. Journal of Cleaner Production, 266, 121954.

Bentler, P.M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural equations. Psychological Bulletin, 107 (2), 238-246.

Bentler, P.M., & Bonett, D.G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588-606.

Beretta, I. (2018). The social effects of eco-innovations in Italian smart cities. Cities, 72, 115-121.

Bollen, K.A. (1989). A new incremental fit index for general structural equation models. Sociological Methods and Research, 17, 303-316.

Bossle, M.B., De Barcellos, M.D., Vieira, L.M., & Sauvée, L. (2016). The drivers for adoption of eco-innovation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 113, 861-872.

Brem, A., & Radziwon, A. (2017). Efficient Triple Helix collaboration fostering local niche innovation projects - a case from Denmark. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 123, 130-141.

Byrne, B.M. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: basic concepts, applications and programming. 2nd ed. Taylor & Francis Group, New York.

Cai, W., & Li, G. (2018). The drivers of eco-innovation and its impact on performance: Evidence from China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 176, 110-118.

Cancino, C. A., La Paz, A. I., Ramaprasad, A., & Syn, T. (2018). Technological innovation for sustainable growth: an ontological perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production, 179, 31-41.

Carayannis, E. G., & Campbell, D. F. (2009). 'Mode 3'and'Quadruple Helix': toward a 21st century fractal innovation ecosystem. International Journal of Technology Management, 46 (3-4), 201-234.

Carayannis, E.G., & Campbell, D.F. (2010). Triple Helix, Quadruple Helix and Quintuple Helix and how do knowledge, innovation and the environment relate to each other?: a proposed framework for a trans-disciplinary analysis of sustainable development and social ecology. International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development, 1 (1), 41-69.

Carayannis, E.G., Cherepovitsyn, A.E., & Ilinova, A.A. (2017). Sustainable development of the Russian arctic zone energy shelf: the role of the quintuple innovation helix model. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 8 (2), 456-470.

Caragliu, A., Del Bo, C., & Nijkamp, P. (2011). Smart cities in Europe. Journal of Urban Technology, 18 (2), 65-82.

Carrillo-Hermosilla, J., del Río González, P., & Könnölä, T. (2009). Eco-innovation: when sustainability and competitiveness shake hands. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. Doi: 10.1057/9780230244856

Chen, J., Cheng, J., & Dai, S. (2017). Regional eco-innovation in China: An analysis of eco-innovation levels and influencing factors. Journal of Cleaner Production, 153, 1-14.

Chen, X., Yi, N., Zhang, L., & Li, D. (2018). Does institutional pressure foster corporate green innovation? Evidence from China's top 100 companies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 188, 304-311.

Chen, L., Zhang, X., He, F., & Yuan, R. (2019). Regional green development level and its spatial relationship under the constraints of haze in China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 210, 376-387.

Cheng, C.C. & Shiu, E. C. (2012). Validation of a proposed instrument for measuring eco-innovation: An implementation perspective. Technovation, 32 (6), 329-344.

Cheng, C.C., Yang, C.L. & Sheu, C. (2014). The link between eco-innovation and business performance: a Taiwanese industry context. Journal of Cleaner Production, 64, 81-90.

Colombo, L.A., Pansera, M., & Owen, R. (2019). The discourse of eco-innovation in the European Union: an analysis of the Eco-Innovation Action Plan and Horizon 2020. Journal of Cleaner Production. 214, 653-665. DOI:

Cong, W., & Shi, L. (2018). Heterogeneity of industrial development and evolution of cleaner production: bibliometric proof based on JCLP. Journal of Cleaner Production, 212, 822-836.

De Guimarães, J.C.F., Dorion, E.C.H., & Severo, E.A. (2019). Antecedents, mediators and consequences of sustainable operations: A framework for analysis of the manufacturing industry. Benchmarking: An International Journal, In Press

De Guimarães, J.C.F., Severo, E.A., Dorion, E.C.H., Coallier, F., & Olea, P.M. (2016). The use of organizational resources for product innovation and organizational performance: a survey of the brazilian furniture industry. International Journal of Production Economics, 180, 135-147.

De Guimarães, J.C.F., Severo, E.A., & De Vasconcelos, C.R.M. (2018). The influence of entrepreneurial, market, knowledge management orientations on cleaner production and the sustainable competitive advantage. Journal of Cleaner Production, 174, 1653-1663.

De Guimarães, J.C., Severo, E.A., Júnior, L.A.F., Da Costa, W.P.L.B., & Salmoria, F.T. (2020). Governance and quality of life in smart cities: Towards sustainable development goals. Journal of Cleaner Production, 253, 119926.

Del Baldo, M. (2019). Acting as a benefit corporation and a B Corp to responsibly pursue private and public benefits. The case of Paradisi Srl (Italy). International Journal of Corporate Social Responsibility, 4(1), 4.

Dieste, M., Panizzolo, R., & Garza-Reyes, J. A. (2020). Evaluating the impact of lean practices on environmental performance: evidences from five manufacturing companies. Production Planning & Control, 31(9), 739-756.

Dong, L., Tong, X., & Li, X. (2018). Some developments and new insights of environmental problems and deep mining strategy for cleaner production in mines. Journal of Cleaner Production, 210, 1562-1578.

Dudin, M.N., Frolova, E.E., Gryzunova, N.V., & Shuvalova, E.B. (2015). The Triple helix model as a mechanism for partnership between the state, business, and the scientific-educational community in the area of organizing national innovation development. Asian Social Science, 11 (1), 230-238.

Etzkowitz, H., & Leydesdorff, L. (1995). The triple helix-university-industry-government relations: a laboratory for knowledge-based economic development. European Association Study Science and Technology Review, 14 (1), 14-19.

Etzkowitz, H., & Leydesdorff, L. (2000). The dynamics of innovation: from National Systems and “Mode 2” to a Triple Helix of university–industry–government relations. Research Policy, 29 (2), 109-123.

European Commission, (2018). Eco-innovation: when business meets the environment. DG Environment. (accessed January 2019).

Fei, J., Wang, Y., Yang, Y., Chen, S., & Zhi, Q. (2016). Towards eco-city: the role of green innovation. Energy Procedia, 104, 165-170.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D.F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 17 (1), 39-50.

Fraj, E., & Martinez, E. (2007). Ecological consumer behaviour: an empirical analysis. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31 (1), 26-33.

García-Granero, E.M., Piedra-Muñoz, L., & Galdeano-Gómez, E. (2018). Eco-innovation measurement: A review of firm performance indicators. Journal of Cleaner Production, 191, 304-317.

García-Granero, E. M., Piedra-Muñoz, L., & Galdeano-Gómez, E. (2020). Measuring eco-innovation dimensions: The role of environmental corporate culture and commercial orientation. Research Policy, 49(8), 104028.

Geng, D., Lai, K. H., & Zhu, Q. (2020). Eco-innovation and its role for performance improvement among Chinese small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises. International Journal of Production Economics, 107869.

Giannetti, B. F., Coscieme, L., Agostinho, F., Neto, G. O., Almeida, C. M. V. B., & Huisingh, D. (2018). Synthesis of the discussions held at the International Workshop on Advances in Cleaner Production: Ten years working together for a sustainable future. Journal of Cleaner Production, 183, 481-486.

Gold, S., Muthuri, J.N., & Reiner, G. (2018). Collective action for tackling “wicked” social problems: A system dynamics model for corporate community involvement. Journal of Cleaner Production, 179, 662-673.

Gouvea, R., Kassicieh, S., & Montoya, M.J.R. (2013). Using the quadruple helix to design strategies for the green economy. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 80 (2), 221-230.

Grundel, I., & Dahlström, M. (2016). A Quadruple and Quintuple Helix approach to regional innovation systems in the transformation to a forestry-based bioeconomy. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 7 (4), 963-983.

Guerrero, M., Urbano, D., 2017. The impact of Triple Helix agents on entrepreneurial innovations' performance: An inside look at enterprises located in an emerging economy. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 119, 294-309.

Hair Jr. J. F., Black, W. C., Bardin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2014). Multivariate data analysis: Pearson new international edition. 7th ed. Pearson Education Limited, New York.

Halkos, G., & Skouloudis, A. (2018). Corporate social responsibility and innovative capacity: Intersection in a macro-level perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 182, 291-300.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43 (1), 115-135.

Hojnik, J., & Ruzzier, M. (2016). What drives eco-innovation? A review of an emerging literature. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 19, 31-41.

Hojnik, J., Ruzzier, M., & Manolova, T.S. (2018). Internationalization and economic performance: The mediating role of eco-innovation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 171, 1312-1323.

Ikram, M., Sroufe, R., Rehman, E., Shah, S. Z. A., & Mahmoudi, A. (2020a). Do quality, environmental, and social (QES) certifications improve international trade? A comparative grey relation analysis of developing vs. developed countries. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 545, 123486.

Ikram, M., Zhang, Q., Sroufe, R., & Shah, S. Z. A. (2020b). Towards a sustainable environment: the nexus between ISO 14001, renewable energy consumption, access to electricity, agriculture and CO2 emissions in SAARC countries. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 22, 218-230.

Ikram, M., Zhou, P., Shah, S. A. A., & Liu, G. Q. (2019). Do environmental management systems help improve corporate sustainable development? Evidence from manufacturing companies in Pakistan. Journal of Cleaner Production, 226, 628-641.

Jamali, D.R., El Dirani, A.M., & Harwood, I.A. (2015). Exploring human resource management roles in corporate social responsibility: the CSR‐HRM co‐creation model. Business Ethics: A European Review, 24 (2), 125-143.

Kanda, W., Hjelm, O., Clausen, J., & Bienkowska, D. (2018). Roles of intermediaries in supporting eco-innovation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 205, 1006-1016.

Kiefer, C. P., Del Río González, P., & Carrillo-Hermosilla, J. (2018). Drivers and barriers of eco-innovation types for sustainable transitions: a quantitative perspective. Business Strategy and the Environment, 28 (1), 155-172.

Kline, R.B., 2011. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. 3 ed. The Guilford Press. New York.

Kumar, A., & Anbanandam, R. (2019). Development of social sustainability index for freight transportation system. Journal of Cleaner Production, 210, 77-92.

Li, Y., Arora, S., Youtie, J., & Shapira, P. (2018). Using web mining to explore Triple Helix influences on growth in small and mid-size firms. Technovation, 76, 3-14.

Lim, C., Kim, K.J., & Maglio, P.P. (2018). Smart cities with big data: reference models, challenges, and considerations. Cities, 82, 89-99.

Lin, Z., Wang, S., & Yang, L. (2020). Motivating innovation alliance's environmental performance through eco-innovation investment in a supply chain. Journal of Cleaner Production, 122361.

Lissitsa, S. & Kol, O. (2016). Generation X vs. generation Y: a decade of online shopping. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 31, 304-312.

Liu, Y., & Huang, Q. (2018). University capability as a micro-foundation for the Triple Helix model: the case of China. Technovation, 76-77, 40-50.

López-González, E., Martínez-Ferrero, J., & García-Meca, E. (2019). Corporate social responsibility in family firms: A contingency approach. Journal of Cleaner Production, 211, 1044-1064.

López, F. J. D., & Montalvo, C. (2015). A comprehensive review of the evolving and cumulative nature of eco-innovation in the chemical industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 102, 30-43.

Loosemore, M., Lim, B.T.H., Ling, F.Y.Y., & Zeng, H.Y. (2018). A comparison of corporate social responsibility practices in the Singapore, Australia and New Zealand construction industries. Journal of Cleaner Production, 190, 149-159.

Low, M.P., & Siegel, D. (2019). A bibliometric analysis of employee-centred corporate social responsibility research in the 2000s. Social Responsibility Journal, 16(5), 691-717.

Machado Jr., C., Ribeiro, D.M.N.M., Da Silva Pereira, R., & Bazanini, R. (2018). Do Brazilian cities want to become smart or sustainable?. Journal of Cleaner Production, 199, 214-221.

Mardia, K.V. (1971). The effect of nonnormality on some multivariate tests and robustness to nonnormality in the linear model. Biometrika, 58 (1), 105-121.

Marôco, J. (2010). Análise de equações estruturais: fundamentos teóricos, softwares & aplicações. PSE, Lisboa.

Martins, V. W. B., Rampasso, I. S., Siltori, P. F. S., Cazeri, G. T., Anholon, R., Quelhas, O. L. G., & Leal Filho, W. (2020). Contributions from the Brazilian industrial sector to Sustainable Development. Journal of Cleaner Production, 122762.

Mascarenhas, C., Marques, C., & Ferreira, J. J. (2020). One for all and all for one: collaboration and cooperation in triple helix knowledge cocreation. International Regional Science Review, 43(4), 316-343.

McDonald, R.P. & Marsh, H. W. (1990). Choosing a multivariate model: noncentrality and goodness of fit. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 247-255.

Nilssen, M. (2019). To the smart city and beyond? Developing a typology of smart urban innovation. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 142, 98-104. DOI: 10.1016/j.techfore.2018.07.060

Peiró-Signes, Á., & Segarra-Oña, M. (2018). How past decisions affect future behavior on eco-innovation: An empirical study. Business Strategy and the Environment, 27 (8), 1233-1244.

Pestana, M.H., & Gageiro, J.N. (2014). Análise de dados para ciências sociais: a complementariedade do SPSS. 6th ed. Sílabo, Lisboa.

Pialot, O., & Millet, D. (2018). Towards operable criteria of eco-innovation and eco-ideation tools for the early design phases. Procedia CIRP, 69, 692-697.

Pinto, G.M.C., Pedroso, B., Moraes, J., Pilatti, L.A., & Picinin, C.T. (2018). Environmental management practices in industries of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) from 2011 to 2015. Journal of Cleaner Production, 198, 1251-1261.

Podsakoff, P.M., Mackenzie, S.B., Lee, J., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended Remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (5), 879-903.

Rake, M., & Grayson, D. (2009). Embedding corporate responsibility and sustainability–everybody's business. Corporate Governance: The international journal of business in society, 9 (4), 395-399.

Razak, A. A., & White, G. R. (2015). The Triple Helix Model for Innovation: A holistic exploration of barriers and enablers. International Journal of Business Performance and Supply Chain Modelling, 7(3), 278-291.

Richardson, H.A., Simmering, M.J., & Sturman, M.C. (2009). A tale of three perspectives: Examining post hoc statistical techniques for detection and correction of common method variance. Organizational Research Methods, 12 (4), 762-800.

Roome, N. (2011). A retrospective on globalization and sustainable development: the business challenge of systems organization and systems integration. Business & Professional Ethics Journal, 195-230.

Salim, N., Ab Rahman, M. N., & Abd Wahab, D. (2019). A systematic literature review of internal capabilities for enhancing eco-innovation performance of manufacturing firms. Journal of Cleaner Production, 209, 1445-1460.

Sato, S. (2017). Climate change, the built environment and triple-helix innovation. Energy Procedia, 143, 843-850.

Severo, E.A., De Guimarães, J.C.F., Dellarmelin, M. L., & Ribeiro, R. P. (2019). The influence of social networks on environmental awareness and the social responsibility of generations. Brazilian Business Review, 16 (5), 500-518.

Severo, E.A., De Guimarães, J.C.F., & Dorion, E.C.H. (2018). Cleaner production, social responsibility and eco-innovation: generations' perception for a sustainable future. Journal of Cleaner Production, 186, 91-103.

Severo, E.A., Dorion, E.C.H., & Guimarães, J.C.F.D. (2017). Innovation and environmental sustainability: analysis in Brazilian metal-mechanic industry. International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, 11(2-3), 230-248.

Severo, E.A., & Guimarães, J.C.F.D. (2015). Corporate environmentalism: an empirical study in Brazil. International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 15(1), 81-95.

Shu, H., & Xiong, P. (2018). The Gini coefficient structure and its application for the evaluation of regional balance development in China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 199, 668-686.

Shulla, K., Leal Filho, W., Sommer, J. H., Salvia, A. L., & Borgemeister, C. (2020). Channels of collaboration for citizen science and the sustainable development goals. Journal of Cleaner Production, 121735.

Snijders, T. A. (1992). Estimation on the basis of snowball samples: how to weight?. Bulletin of Sociological Methodology, 36 (1), 59-70.

Strauss, W., & Howe, N. (1991). Generations. William Morrow, New York.

Tamvada, M. (2020). Corporate social responsibility and accountability: a new theoretical foundation for regulating CSR. International Journal of Corporate Social Responsibility, 5, 1-14.

Tamayo-Orbegozo, U., Vicente-Molina, M-A., & Villarreal-Larrinaga, O. (2017). Eco-innovation strategic model. A multiple-case study from a highly eco-innovative European region. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, 1347-1367.

Tanaka, J.S., & Huba, G.J. (1985). A fit index for covariance structure models under arbitrary GLS estimation. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 38, 197-201.

Vieira, A. P., & Radonjič, G. (2020). Disclosure of eco-innovation activities in European large companies' sustainability reporting. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management,1-14.

Voegtlin, C., & Greenwood, M. (2016). Corporate social responsibility and human resource management: A systematic review and conceptual analysis. Human Resource Management Review, 26 (3), 181-197.

Wang, L., Chang, H. L., Rizvi, S. K. A., & Sari, A. (2020). Are eco-innovation and export diversification mutually exclusive to control carbon emissions in G-7 countries?. Journal of Environmental Management, 270, 110829.

Williams, L.J., Edwards, J.R., & Vandenberg, R.J. (2003a). Recent advances in causal modeling methods for organizational and management research. Journal of management, 29 (6), 903-936.

Williams, L.J., Hartman, N., & Cavazotte, F. (2003b). Method variance and marker variables: an integrative approach using structural equation methods. In annual meeting of the Academy of Management. Seattle, WA.

Wong, C. W., Wong, C. Y., & Boon-itt, S. (2020). Environmental management systems, practices and outcomes: Differences in resource allocation between small and large firms. International Journal of Production Economics, 107734.

Xavier, A.F., Naveiro, R.M., Aoussat, A., & Reyes, T. (2017). Systematic literature review of eco-innovation models: opportunities and recommendations for future research. Journal of Cleaner Production, 149, 1278-1302.

Yang, Y., Holgaard, J. E., & Remmen, A. (2012). What can triple helix frameworks offer to the analysis of eco-innovation dynamics? Theoretical and methodological considerations. Science and Public Policy, 39(3), 373-385.

Yoda, N., & Kuwashima, K. (2020). Triple helix of university–industry–government relations in Japan: Transitions of collaborations and interactions. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 11(3), p. 1120-1144.

You, D., Zhang, Y., & Yuan, B. (2019). Environmental regulation and firm eco-innovation: Evidence of moderating effects of fiscal decentralization and political competition from listed Chinese industrial companies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 207, 1072-1083.

Yu, X., Yan, J., Zhang, F., Hamma, M., & Zhang, Q. (2020). Sustainable development of sci-tech service intermediaries based on triple helix model of innovation. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 15(4), p. 513-519.

Yuan, J., Chen, K., Li, W., Ji, C., Wang, Z., & Skibniewski, M. J. (2018). Social network analysis for social risks of construction projects in high-density urban areas in China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 198, 940-961.

Zahari, A. R., & Esa, E. (2016). Motivation to adopt renewable energy among generation Y. Procedia Economics and Finance, 35, 444-453.

Zhang, P., Duan, N., Dan, Z., Shi, F., & Wang, H. (2018). An understandable and practicable cleaner production assessment model. Journal of Cleaner Production, 187, 1094-1102.

Zhao, Y., Tan, Y., & Feng, S. (2020). Does reducing air pollution improve the progress of sustainable development in China?. Journal of Cleaner Production, 122759.

Zheng, C., Yuan, J., Zhu, L., Zhang, Y., & Shao, Q. (2020). From digital to sustainable: A scientometric review of smart city literature between 1990 and 2019. Journal of Cleaner Production, 120689.

Zopiaris, A. M., Krambia-Kapardis, M., & Varnavas, A. (2012). Y-ers, X-ers, and Boomers: Investigating the multigenerational [mis]perceptions in the hospitality workplace. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 12 (2), 101-121.




How to Cite

Severo, E. A., & De Guimarães, J. C. F. (2021). Antecedent and Consequents of Eco-Innovation for Sustainability: Generations’ Perceptions in Brazil and Portugal. International Journal of Professional Business Review, 7(1), e0280.