Measuring Inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa Post-Pandemic: Correlation Results for Workplace Inequalities and Implication for Sustainable Development Goal ten

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26668/businessreview/2023.v8i4.1405

Keywords:

Discrimination, Diversity, Efficiency, Equity, Gender disparity, Sustainability

Abstract

Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the relationship between workplace inequalities and business effectiveness in selected and listed businesses in Nigeria. It includes an analysis of four independent sub-variables (gender segregation, incentive disparity, ethnic factors and professional disparity) for the variable workplace inequalities and four dependent sub-variables (creativity, service quality,productivity and business growth)for the variable business effectiveness.

 

Methodology: This study used a survey research approach to investigate the relationship between workplace inequalities and business effectiveness in selected and listed businesses in Nigeria. The survey research design was cross-sectional in this paper, and the technique was quantitative. The adoption of this design was influenced by the research problem and its related research questions. The unit of analysis for this study was the staff of consumer goods companies of Seven listed consumer goods companies in Nigeria that controlled 93.08% of the total market capitalization of the entire consumer goods sector as of October 31, 2022. The population comprised 491 employees of the selected consumer goods companies in Nigeria. A structured questionnaire with Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients for the constructs ranging from 0.77 to 0.88 was used for data collection.

 

Findings: The findings of this study are in consonance with the view of Bandura (2012), who insists that entrepreneurial self-efficacy is the level of confidence shown by an individual towards the undertaking of a task or position which favourably influences small business performance. The findings of this study are consistent with those of Ngek (2015); Dessyana and Riyanti (2017); Adolfina and Lumintang (2018); Budiman and Pangestu (2018); Cumberland, Meek, & Germain, (2015): Yusuff et al. (2019); Oyeku et al. (2020); Islam et al. (2020); Kale, (2020); Khalil et al. (2021); McGee & Peterson, (2019); Torres and Watson, (2013) which demonstrate that entrepreneurial self-efficacy positively and significantly affects business performance

 

 

Research limitation and implication: It recognized that the findings and implications of this paper are situated within Lagos, Nigeria, and primarily small businesses as the focus of its attention. The research can be expanded with similar studies conducted across large businesses in Nigeria or other climes. To achieve more generalizability and trustworthiness, the sample size can be raised by considering more respondents with innovative data gathering techniques. In this research, the absence of data in the majority of small businesses in Lagos was the most significant challenge to obtaining objective performance measurements, for this reason, the non-financial performance indicators were adopted. According to Khalil, et al. (2021), subjective measurements may be produced without objective measures.

 

Practical implication: For every business to scale or survive there is a need to have a reliable configuration of strategies of which managerial capability is key, as such the findings of this study are expected to help create a reminder of the need to improve skill sets in the owner-managers of small businesses to beat the competition and remain viable

 

Social implication: This research will help society comprehend the need for managerial capabilities and entrepreneurial self-efficacy for harmonious business growth and performance in operations. Consequently, generating employment and boosting firm income.

 

Originality/value: The paper provides evidence of the performance of small business in Lagos State Nigeria. This paper extends understanding of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and managerial capabilities among owner-managers of small businesses, and should be of particular interest to entrepreneurs, policy-makers and academia. The paper provides a new interpretation of existing sources particularly the key indicators used for the purpose of determining managerial capabilities and performance of small businesses. This research contributes to the need for greater clarity and knowledge small business sector

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Acker, J. (2006). Inequality Regimes. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243206289499 Gender & Society, 20(4), 441–464.

Adams, C. (2021). The Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved from Integrated Thinking and the Integrated Report. Available online: http://integratedreporting.org/resource/sdgs-integrated-thinking-and-the-integrated-report/ (accessed on 15 November 2022).

Adams, J.S. (1963). Towards an understanding of inequity. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 675, 422-436

Agarwal, B. (2021). Reflections on the Less Visible and Less Measured: Gender and COVID-19 in India. Gender & Society, 089124322110012. https://doi.org/10.1177/08912432211001299

Agrawal, V. (2012). Managing the diversified team: challenges and strategies for improving

performance", Team Performance Management: An International Journal of

Management,18(7/8), 89-97.

Alabo, R. L., & Okwuchukwu M. A. (2020). Green Marketing and Sustainability of Breweries in Nigeria. European Journal of Business and Innovation Research 8: 19–48

Alesina Alberto, Perotti Roberto. 1996. “Income Distribution, Political Instability, and Investment.” European Economic Review 40 (6): 1203–28.

Akpoviroro, K. S., Owotutu, S. O. & Kadiri, B. (2018). The impact of cultural diversity on organizational performance of selected frozen fish companies in Nigeria. IJARIIE, 4(3), 420-428.

Anyango, O. M. & Florah, O. M. (2019). Workforce Diversity and Performance of Kisumu Law Courts, Kenya. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 10(12), 24-34.

Ayandibu, A. O., & Khalida, A. (2021). Green Marketing, Green Management, and Sustainability. In Handbook of Research on Climate Change and the Sustainable Financial Sector. Hershey: IGI Global, 316–30.

Babarinde, S.A., Ojo, A.A., Omoyele, O.S., & Aigbedion, T.I. (2022). Impact of gender balance practices on employee performance in selected governmental organisations: Nigerian experience. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 21(S3), 1-13.

Bagorogoza, J., De Waal, A., Van den Herik, H. J. & Van de Walle, B. A. (2013). A critical assessment of the high-performance framework in the Ugandan financial sector. Botswana Journal of Business, 6(1): 1-16.

Blotevogel, R., Imamoglu E., Moriyama K., & Sarr B. (2020). Measuring Income Inequality and Implications for Economic Transmission Channels.” IMF Working Paper WP/20/164. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

Bourguignon, F. (2015). Revisiting the Debate on Inequality and Economic Development.” Revue d'économie politique 5: 633–63.

Cingano F. (2014). Trends in Income Inequality and Its Impact on Economic Growth.” OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 163. Paris: OECD Publishing.

Côté, S., House, J., & Willer, R. (2015). High economic inequality leads higher-income individuals to be less generous. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(52), 15838-15843

Davlembayeva, D. & Alamanos, E. (2022). Equity Theory: A review. In S. Papagiannidis (Ed), TheoryHub Book. http://open.ncl.ac.uk

De Waal, A. A. (2012). Characteristics of high-performance organizations. Journal of Management Research, 8(3): 39-71.

De Waal, A. & Chipeta, K. 2015. Influence of culture on priority-setting of high-performance activities. Journal of Strategy and Management, 8(1): 64-86.

De Winne, S., Marescaux, E., Sels, L., Van Beveren, I., & Vanormelingen, S. (2019). The impact of employee turnover and turnover volatility on labor productivity: A flexible non-linear approach. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 30(21), 3049–3079. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2018.1449129

Digitally Driven (2020). U.S. small businesses find a digital safety net during COVID-19. Report. Connected Commerce. Available at: https://connectedcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Digitally-Driven-Report.pdf. Accessed 20 November, 2022

Digitally Driven (2021). European Small businesses find a digital safety net during Covid-19. Report. Connected Commerce. Available at: https://digitallydriven.connectedcouncil.org/europe/. Accessed. Accessed 21 November, 2022

Duric, Z., & Jasna P. T. (2021). The Role of Performance and Environmental Sustainability Indicators in Hotel Competitiveness. Sustainability 13: 6574.

El-Shagi M., & Shao L. (2019). The Impact of Inequality and Redistribution on Growth. Review of Income and Wealth 65 (2): 239–63.

Fernandez, J. P, (1998). Slaying the Diversity Dinosaur, Executive Excellence, New Delhi: Sage, Dec. pg.15.

Finn, L. (2015). Examples of diversity issues in the workplace.

http://oureverydaylife.com/examples-diversity-issues-workplace-3884.html

Forbes, K. J. (2000) A Reassessment of the Relationship between Inequality and Growth.” American Economic Review 90 (4): 869–87.

Green, K., López, M., Wysocki, A., Kepner, K., Farnsworth, D., & Clark, J. L. (2015). Diversity in the workplace: Benefits, challenges, and the required managerial tools. UF/IAFS Extension, University of Florida

Greenhaus, J. H., Parasuraman, S., & Wormley, W. M. (1990). Effects of race on organizational

experiences, job performance evaluations, and career outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 33, 64-86

Gründler K., & Scheuermeyer P. (2018). Growth Effects of Inequality and Redistribution:

What Are the Transmission Channels?” Journal of Macroeconomics 55: 293–313.

Inegbedion, H., Sunday, E., Asaleye, A., Lawal, A; & Adebanji., A. (2020). Managing Diversity for Organizational Efficiency. SAGE Open, 10(1), 215824401990017–. doi:10.1177/2158244019900173

Ingram, P. & Oh, J.J. (2022). Mapping the class ceiling: the social class disadvantage for attaining management positions, Academy of Management Discoveries, 8(1),56-76.

Islam, J., & Hu, H. (2012). A review of literature on contingency theory in managerial

accounting. African Journal of Business Management 6 (15), 5159-5164.

Ivanov, D., & Dolgui, A. (2020). Viability of intertwined supply networks: Extending the supply chain resilience angles towards survivability. A position paper motivated by the COVID-19 outbreak. International Journal of Production Research, 58(10), 29042915. https://doi.org/10.1080/0020 7543.2020.1750727

Jankelová, N., Joniaková, Z., & Procházková, K. (2022). The way to business competitiveness: the importance of diversity management and teamwork climate in stabilizing of employees. Journal of Business Economics and Management, 23(3), 606–625. https://doi.org/10.3846/jbem.2022.16199

Jäntti M., Pirtillä J., & Rönkkö R.. (2020). Redistribution, Inequality, and Growth Revisited: Comment on ‘Redistribution, Inequality, and Growth: New Evidence’.” WIDER Working Paper 2020/117. Helsinki: UNU-WIDER.

Jonsen, K., Point, S., Kelan, E.K. & Grieble, A. (2021). Diversity and inclusion branding: a five-country comparison of corporate websites, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 32(3), 616-649.

Kalev, A., Dobbin, F., & Kelly, E. (2006). Best Practices or Best Guesses? Assessing the Efficacy of Corporate Affirmative Action and Diversity Policies. American Sociological Review, 71(4), 589–617. https://doi.org/10.1177/000312240607100404

Khan, P. A., Johl, S. K., & Akhtar, S. (2021). Firm Sustainable Development Goals and Firm Financial Performance through the Lens of Green Innovation Practices and Reporting: A Proactive Approach. Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 14(12), 605. MDPI AG. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jrfm14120605

Kitsios, F., Kamariotou, M., & Talias, M. A. (2020). Corporate Sustainability Strategies and Decision Support Methods: A Bibliometric Analysis. Sustainability, 12(2), 521. doi:10.3390/su12020521

Knowles, S., (2005). Inequality and Economic Growth: The Empirical Relationship Reconsidered in the Light of Comparable Data, Journal of Development Studies 41 (1): 135–59.

Kollen, T. (2021). Diversity management: a critical review and agenda for the future”, Journal of Management Inquiry, 30(3), 259-272.

Kritikos, A.S., Graeber, D., & Seebauer, J. (2020). Pandemie wird zur Krise für Selbständige. DIW aktuell 47.

Kundu, S. C., & Mor, A. (2017). Workforce diversity and organizational performance: A study of IT industry in India. Employee Relations, 39(2), 160–183. https://doi.org/10.1108/ER-06- 2015-0114

Labucay, I. (2015). Diversity management and performance: paving the way for a revised

business case, European Journal of International Management,9(4)425–441.

Lassala, C., Orero-Blat, M., Ribeiro-Navarrete, S. (2021). The financial performance of listed companies in pursuit of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, doi:10.1080/1331677x.2021.1877167

Lawal, B. (2012). Board dynamics and corporate performance: Review of literature, and empirical challenges. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 4(1), 1 – 14.

Lengfelder, C. (2019). “Exploring Dynamics of Inequality in Human Development.” 2019 UNDP Human Development Report, Background Paper NO. 3-2019. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Accessed 22 November, 2022. http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/exploring-dynamics-inequality-human-development.

Lu, J., Mengshang L., Chong Z., Dan R., Hailing G., Kristina M., & Justas S. (2021). Assessment of corporate social responsibility by addressing sustainable development goals. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management 28: 686–703.

Luksyte, A., Avery, D. R., Parker, S. K., Wang, Y., Johnson, L. U. & Crepeau, L. (2022). Age diversity in teams: Examining the impact of the least agreeable member. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 43(3), 546-565.

Lyknis, T., Wiedemeier, S., Williams, V., Gill, M., & Keefe, S. (2014). Challenges and benefits of diversity. http://www.multiculturaladvantage.com

Malik, M. (2015). Value-enhancing capabilities of CSR: A brief review of contemporary literature. Journal of Business Ethics, 127(2), 419–438. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-014-2051-9

Mensah, J.& Casadevall, S. (2019) Sustainable development: Meaning, history, principles, pillars, and implications for human action: Literature review. Cogent Social Science, 5(1): 1653531

Mukhi, U., & Quental, C. (2019). Exploring the challenges and opportunities of the United Nations sustainable development goals: a dialogue between a climate scientist and management scholars. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, 19(3), 552–564. https://doi.org/10.1108/CG-01-2018-0028

Mushtaque, I., Waqas, H., & Awais-E-Yazdan, M. (2022). The effect of technostress on the teachers’ willingness to use online teaching modes and the moderating role of job insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan. International Journal of Educational Management, 36(1), 63-80. https://doi.org/10.1108/ IJEM-07-2021-0291

Njide, M. M., Onodugo, V. A. & Agbeze, E. K. (2018). Impact of ethnic diversity on team

performance in federal Health institutions in South East Nigeria. International

Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship Research, 11(4), 13-28

Neves P. C., Silva S., & Tavares, M. (2014). Inequality and Growth; Uncovering the Main Conclusions from the Empirics. The Journal of Development Studies 50 (1): 1–21.

Nolan, B., & Valenzuela, L. (2019). Inequality and Its Discontents.” Oxford Review of Economic Policy 35 (3): 396–430.

Odhong, E. A.,Were, S., & Omolo, J. (2014). Effect of Human Capital Management Drivers on Organizational Performance in Kenya. A Case of Investment and Mortgages Bank Ltd. European Journal of Business Management, 2(1),341-356.

Odhong, E. A. (2018). Influence of Human Capital Practices on Employee Performance in the Private Security Industry in Kenya.

Odita, A. O., & Egbule, S. (2015). Workforce diversity and organizational effectiveness in Nigerian brewery industry. https:// pdfs.semanticscholar.org/3ef1/934b3bb5a83862bbeb51c161d 5b96bb0d94b.pdf

Olubiyi, T.O.,(2022). An investigation of sustainable innovative strategy and customer

satisfaction in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) IN Nigeria, Covenant

Journal of Business and Social Sciences,13(2),1-24.

Olubiyi, T. O. (2022). An investigation of sustainable innovative strategy and customer

satisfaction in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria. covenant

journal of business and social sciences, 13(2). Retrieved from https://journals.covenantuniversity.edu.ng/index.php/cjbss/article/view/3274

Olubiyi, T.O. (2020). Knowledge management practices and family business profitability: Evidence from Lagos state, Nigeria, Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review (Nigerian Chapter),6(1) 23-32.

Olubiyi, T. O., Egwakhe, J., & Akinlabi, B. H, (2019). Knowledge Management and Family Business Continuity: The Moderating Effect of Length of Time in Existence. Global Journal of Management and Business Research,19(5).29-35.

Olubiyi, T. O. (2019). Knowledge Management Practices and Family Business Profitability:

Evidence from Lagos State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Management and Business

Research, 19(A11), 21–31. Retrieved from https://journalofbusiness.org/index.php/GJMBR/article/view/2872

Olubiyi, O.T., Lawal, A, T., & Adeoye, O.O. (2022). Succession Planning and Family Business

Continuity: Perspectives from Lagos State, Nigeria. Organization and Human Capital

Development, 1(1), 40–52. https://doi.org/10.31098/orcadev.v1i1.865

Olubiyi, T.O., (2022). Measuring technological capability and business performance Post-

COVID Era: Evidence from Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Nigeria,

Management & Marketing Journal, vol xx (2),234- 248

Olubiyi, T.O., Jubril, B., Sojinu, O.S., & Ngari, R. (2022). Strengthening Gender Equality in

Small Business and Achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Comparative

Analysis of Kenya and Nigeria, Sawala Jurnal Administrasi Negara, 10(2) 168-186.

Omoluabi, E. T. (2016). Contingency approach in Nigeria management system.

Information and Knowledge Management,6 (7), 1-7

Otaye-Ebede, L. (2019). Antecedents and outcomes of managing diversity in a UK context: Test of a mediation model. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 30(18), 2605–2627. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2016.1253031

Ostry J. D., Berg, A., & Tsangarides C. G. (2014). Redistribution, Inequality, and Growth.” IMF Staff Discussion Note SDN/14/02. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

Oxfam calculation based on Credit Suisse Global Wealth Report and Forbes 2019 Billionaires List. Data for wealth of the bottom 50% is taken from Credit Suisse, and this is based on estimates using data that is poor for many countries in Africa. Wealth of the bottom 50% of the African population is 22.98 billion dollars. Wealth for the three richest billionaires in Africa is 28.8 billion dollars (Aliko Dangote 14.1 billion, Nicky Oppenheimer 7.7 billion and Johann Rupert 7 billion dollars according to Forbes 2019 billionaires list). African population estimated at 1.3 billion people in 2019

Packard, M. D., & Bylund, P. L. (2018). On the relationship between inequality and entrepreneurship. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 12(1), 3-22.

Perrons, D. (2017). Gender and inequality: Austerity and alternatives. Intereconomics, 52(1), 28-33

Ramos, D.L., Chen, S., Rabeeu, A., Abdul Rahim, A.B. (2022). Does SDG Coverage Influence Firm Performance? Sustainability, 14,4870. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14094870

Renee, M. (2014). Top 10 diversity issues at work. https://smallbusiness.chron.com/top-10-diversity-issues-work-24939.html

Rijamampianina, R., & Carmichael, T. (2005). A pragmatic and holistic approach to managing diversity. Problems and perspectives in management, 1, 109-117.

Rivera, L.A., & Tilcsik, A. (2019). Scaling down inequality: Rating scales, gender bias, and

the architecture of evaluation. American Sociological Review, 84(2), 248-274

Shena, J., Chandaa, A., D’Nettob, B., & Mongaa, M. (2009). Managing diversity through human resource management: An international perspective and conceptual framework. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(2), 235–251.

Stiglitz, J., (2012). The Price of Inequality: How Today's Divided Society Endangers Our Future. 2nd ed. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Szatmari, B. (2021). Young stars and red giants: The moderating effect of age diversity on the relationship between the proportion of high performers and team performance. Journal of Applied Psychology.

University of Washington (2018). Dimensions of diversity (online).

https://www.tacoma.uw.edu/equity/dimensions-diversity

Uwem, E. I., Oyedele, O. O., & Olubiyi, O. T. (2021). Workplace Green Behavior for

Sustainable Competitive Advantage. In Human Resource Management Practices for

Promoting Sustainability IGI Global. (248–263).

Woschkowiak, A. (2018). Board diversity and firm financial performance: Gender, nationality and age diversity in European boardrooms. (Unpublished master thesis). Radboud University, Nijmegen.

UNDP. (2019). trade development goals. report. Retrieved Retrieved from from UNDP Africa

human development report. Retrieved 15 October 2019, from

https://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/librarypage/hdr/2019-africa-human-development-report.html.

van Dijk, H., Kooij, D., Karanika-Murray, M., De Vos, A. & Meyer, B. (2020). Meritocracy a myth? A multilevel perspective of how social inequality accumulates through work, Organizational Psychology Review, 10(4),240-269.

Van Heerden, W. & Roodt, G. (2007). The development of a measuring instrument for

assessing a culture. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 33(1): 18-28.

Wengrzyn, R. (2015). Diversity issues in the workplace: Discrimination, sexism, ageism and

more. http://study.com/ academy/lesson/diversity-in-the-workplace.html

Wentling, R. M., & Palma-Rivas, N. (2000). Current status of diversity initiatives in selected

multinational corporations. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 11(1), 35–60.

Zager Kocjan, G., Kavčič, T., & Avsec, A. (2021). Resilience matters: Explaining the association between personality and psychological functioning during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 21(1), 100198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijchp.2020.08.002

Zaki Dajani, M. A., & Mostafa, B. A. (2021). The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Egyptian Women Psychological Empowerment and Work-Life Balance. Journal of Business Administration Research, 10(1), 20. https://doi.org/10.5430/jbar.v10n1p20

Downloads

Published

2023-04-20

How to Cite

Olubiyi, T. O., Adeoye, O. O., Jubril, B., Adeyemi , O. S., & Eyanuku, J. P. (2023). Measuring Inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa Post-Pandemic: Correlation Results for Workplace Inequalities and Implication for Sustainable Development Goal ten. International Journal of Professional Business Review, 8(4), e01405. https://doi.org/10.26668/businessreview/2023.v8i4.1405